Claustrophobia: a film where most of the fright comes from its characters being in a cramped or shrinking space and the atmosphere created by such space.
survival horror: Usually features lots of running, the fright comes from the will they or won't they survive the (insert creature here).
psychological: Fright comes from blurring the lines between the real and the imagined or the supernatural and psychological, or from the psychological battle between two characters trying to determine one reality over another.
mortification: Fright created by the destruction of the body
the fun house: Things jump, bump, and surprise but are usually only briefly or not seen at all.
intellectual: The fright comes from the implications of the situations or ideas posited by a film or one of its characters.
The Slow Burn: The film builds up to a reveal or a realization which creates a fright in retrospect.
Sci-fi/horror: It's a sci-fi film, but uses horror grammar. See: The Thing (both versions), Quatermass, The Terminator.
The ghost ship: a group of people come across an abandoned ship, space-ship, plane; finds its not abandoned. See: Alien, The Ghost Ship (45), The Ghost of Flight 401.
Domestic horror: Family based horror, usually the quarrels in a relationship have a physical parallel or manifestation or are heightened by paranormal manifestations, or the struggle to keep a family together in the face of difficult or what are seen as threatening forces. See: The Shining, The Stepfather, Frailty.
Body horror: Horror where the fear is based on the mutation, destruction, failure, or disintegration of the body. See: The Fly (86), Shivers, Cabin Fever.
sexual horror: fear of the sexual act, repression of that act, reproduction, child birth. See: Rosemary's Baby, The Brood, Dead Ringers.
Haunted house: The place is the character which causes the fright. see: The Innocents, The Haunting, The Kingdom.
Possession: the loss of control/identity to a supernatural entity usually demonic, but not necessarily. See: The Exorcist, The Evil Dead, Invasion of the Body Snatchers.
Found tape: film based around footage or other media recovered from a previous recording, usually an investigation. See: Cannibal Holocaust, The Last Broadcast, Blair Witch.
Psychological horror : refer to above. See: Jacob's Ladder, The Interview, The Other.
vengeful spirit/demon: A more violent form of the ghost story or haunted house. see: The Entity, Poltergeist, Ju-on: The Grudge.